Excessive bureaucracy or adherence to official rules and formalities.
Woven red tape is used to tie up bundles of legal documents and official papers. A Dictionary of Law (eighth edition – 2015), edited by Jonathan Law, contains the following definition:
brief. A document or bundle of documents by which a solicitor instructs a barrister to appear as an advocate in court. A brief usually comprises a backsheet, typed on large brief-size paper giving the title of the case and including the solicitor’s instructions, which is wrapped around the other papers relevant to the case. The whole bundle is tied up with red tape in the case of a private client, white tape if the brief is from the Crown, and green tape if from one of the land authorities.
The earliest known mention of red tape is this advertisement by a London lawyer in the Public Intelligencer of 6th December 1658:
A little bundle of Papers, tied with a red Tape, were lost on Friday last was a seven night, between Worcester-house and Lincoln’s-inn. Also a Paper-Book bound in Leather and blue coloured Leafs. If any one who hath found them, will bring or send them to Mr. Graves his Chamber in Lincoln’s Inn, they shall receive satisfaction for their pains.
Red tape also appeared in a 1696 law of Maryland, USA, stating that the bounds and limits of a town-pasture and common shall be ascertained
according to the Map and Plat thereof, being drawn up and presented by Richard Beard, Gent. By Order and Directions of his Excellency, carefully examined, and sealed with the Great Seal of the Province at the four Sides thereof, and upon the Backside thereof sealed with this Excellency’s Seal at Arms, on a red Cross with red Tape, and remaining in the Secretary’s office, or to be hung up in the Court-House.
The first recorded depreciative use of red tape is in a 1736 poem addressed to Queen Caroline, Poetical Epistle to the Queen on her commanding Lord Hervey to write no more, written under the reign of George II by the English courtier, political writer and memoirist John Hervey (1696-1743):
Let all the Cabinet, with ductile hand,
Sign what they read, and never understand;
Let dupes you rally thankfully receive it;
Let Teed mill chocolate, and Purcel give it;
What others dictate, let great statesmen write,
And we Gold Keys learn all to read at sight:
Let Wilmington, with grave, contracted brow,
Red tape and wisdom at the Council show,
Sleep in the senate, in the circle bow.
Legal documents were also tied up with green ferret. The noun ferret, probably from Italian fioretti, floss-silk, denotes a stout tape most commonly made of cotton but also of silk, which was known as Italian ferret. In A Worlde of Wordes, Or Most copious, and exact Dictionarie in Italian and English (1598), John Florio thus defined Italian fioretti:
A kind of course silke called foret or ferret silke.
Charles Dickens (1812-70) mentioned green ferret at the very beginning of chapter 10 of Bleak House (1853), a novel in which he satirises the English judicial system:
On the eastern borders of Chancery Lane, that is to say, more particularly, in Cook’s Court, Cursitor Street, Mr. Snagsby, Law Stationer, pursues his lawful calling. In the shade of Cook’s Court, at most times a shady place, Mr. Snagsby has dealt in all sorts of blank forms of legal process; in skins and rolls of parchment; in paper—foolscap, brief, draft, brown, white, whitey-brown, and blotting; in stamps; in office-quills, pens, ink, India-rubber, pounce, pins, pencils, sealing-wax, and wafers; in red tape, and green ferret; in pocket-books, almanacks, diaries, and law lists; in string boxes, rulers, inkstands—glass and leaden, penknives, scissors, bodkins, and other small office-cutlery; in short, in articles too numerous to mention.